WHEAT CROP| wheat cultivation

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WHEAT CROP|Information about the wheat crop 

wheat is a crop of a cool environment. Rice and wheat are the major cereal crop of India.  Under the botanical classification, wheat crop belongs to the genus Triticum

Climate for wheat crop

wheat crop

The wheat has wide adaptability it can be grown not only in tropical and subtropical but also in temperate zones and the cold tracts of for north.

The temperature required for wheat during the growing season is around 15-degree Celcius the weather should be warm and maist during the early stage of growth and sunny and dry in the later stage.

The average temperature of the hottest month should not exceed 20 degrees Celcius.

season for wheat crop 


wheat in India is best grown as a rabi or winter season crop since the conditions during the time are conducive for growth and ensure maximum yield.

soil for wheat crop

Wheat  crop  image

Wheat needs soil with a moderate amount of water holding capacity. Being very sensitive to waterlogging, heavy soils with poor drainage capacity is not preferred for wheat cultivation. wheat is grown in a variety of soil in India.

well-drained loam and clay loams are good crops for wheat however good crops of wheat are raised in sandy loams and black soils also.soil should neutral in reaction. Heavy soil with good drainage is suitable for wheat cultivation under dry condition 

sowing 

 

Before sowing the seed are treated with 5gram Trichoderma spores or 5kg carbendazim for every 1kg seed. There should of 15-20CM maintained between the seed in ease of late sowing the seed must be soaked overnight in water. Should sowing must be done and it should be covered with a thin layer of yard manure.

Land preparation

 

Land preparation

For sowing of wheat, first of all, we should plow the field 2-3 times in the field should be free from soil, stones, sand, and gravel. Residual crop debris can be burned in the field itself. After this, the land should be uprooted again during the rainy season to prevent the growth of wild plants and weeds.

The land should be plowed at least 3 times during the summer before farming Soil should be tested before putting any fertilizer in the field 

Water Requirement
wheat crop
the crop requires 4-6 depending on the soil type and rainfall. The wheat crop requires a minimum of 5 irrigations at the following critical stage such as, immediately after sowing crown root initiation 15-20 days, active tillering stage 35-40 days
flowering stage 50-55 days, and grain filling stage 70-75
days. Crown root initiation and flowering are the most critical
stage. Water stagnation should be avoided at the time germin
Application of fertilizers
 
Application of fertilizers image
Apply NPK fertilizer as per soil test recommendation as far as possible. If soil test recommendation is not available, adopt a blanket recommendation of 80:40:40 NPK kg/ha. • Apply half of N and full dose of P2O5 and K2O basally before sowing and incorporate in the sowing.
 
Common Pests and Diseases

Bacterial leaf streak and black chaff

Xanthomonas campestris

Symptoms
 
Sudden appearance of water-soaked, light brown, elongated lesions on upper leaves; lesions quickly dry out and turn into necrotic streaks on the leaves; black stripes occur on glumes and purple-black lesions appear on rachis and peduncle if infection is in the head

cterial leaf streak and black chaff Image

Powdery mildew

• Powdery mildew can easily be diagnosed by the white, powdery patches that form on the upper surface of leaves and stem.
• Greyish white powdery growth appears on the leaf, sheath, stem and floral parts.
• Powdery growth later become black lesion and cause drying of leaves and other parts

Powdery mildew lefe image


• Favorable conditions
• The disease infects plants during periods of high humidity (not necessarily rain) and cool to moderate temperatures (20-21°C).

Chemical control:


Triadimefon 25% WP @ 200 g in 300 l of water/acre

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