soil profile- information about soil horizon



  what is soil profile

 soil horizon image
To know the soil, if a vertical section is cut from the soil,   then we will see many layers from the top to the bottom of the soil, these layers are different from each other             

It is known that this layer of soil is called horizon. These layers of soil are different from each other.

For example:

Depth, texture, structure, etc.

The physical and chemical properties of each layer are different.

For the  convenience of study, three major levels of soil are divided into what are called A, B, C stratum



A horizon or eluvial horizon

 This is the topmost surface of the soil. The profundity of this horizon varies at different places. 

This horizon is thin in sloping places and it is thick in the Plain area. 

Trees – Leaves of plants, root stems, flowers, animal remains partially decomposed present in A stratum.

When the water of rain falls on the soil, many types of soluble salts present in the A stratum of the soil go on descending from the top to the bottom with organic matter and micronutrient water of the soil.

Elements, components, solids and micronutrients dissolve and move from the upper layer to the lower layers, it is called Eluviation.
The color A stratum is black-brown because organic matter is found in this stratum. Under this stratum, Aooo, Aoo, Ao, A1, A2, A3 substratum are found.

  In this sub-stratum, there is a large amount of decomposable matter and undissolved organic matter. 

This type of sub-stratum is found in cold regions, forests, hillsides, grasslands,  near towns, etc.


The partially dissolved substance present in this sub-stratum is black or gray in color on the soil of forest areas where there is a lot of organic matter. 

Under this sub-stratum, there are clearly two sub-stratum, a fermented and The second merit is humified. 

In this sub-stratum, organic matter is completely decomposed, it cannot be identified by naked eyes.

 It contains dissolved organic matter. All other soils lack this stratum.

 This a layer is found between Ao and A2 and is a dark-colored mineral material,

 in this layer is found a predominance of mineral matter which is found in a mixed state with humus obtained from dissolution of organic matter.

 Due to this, the color of the stratum is black, its structure is granular and according to the geographical location it changes to brown, black or yellow. Land

It is a highly developed light-colored Sub-stratum.  It is formed due to partial exudation of basic substances by leaching, bleaching, eluvition reaction. The A1 is light colored and podjol is found clear in the soil.


In most of the soil, there is a lack of this stratum it is a transitional layer present in the middle of A and B stratum.

 Its properties are more than A2 stratum than B stratum.

#B stratum, sub-soil

stratum is found just below A stratum so it is also called subsoil.

In A stratum, organic and inorganic materials accumulate by draining through this stratum. 

 Therefore accumulation is called horizon or illuviation horizon In this stratum, there is an excess of Fe2O3 Al2O3 and silicate clay.

This stratum has a brittle color due to the amount of organic matter and humus being less than that of A stratum.

 According to the amount of secretive substances, this stratum can be divided into B1, B2, B3 sub-stratum.


It is an interstitial stratum between A and B stratum like A3 which is absent in most of the soil.

 This transition substratum has properties of both A3 and B2 but B2 is the predominant property of SUBSTRATUM.


It is a storage substratum and a variety of compounds and minerals and salts A stratum are absorbed and stored in it.

 It has Fe2O3, Al2O3 presence due to color red to reddish-brown. 

Temperate regions In this area of podzol soil found in, there is an accumulation of Fe2O3 and Al2O3 or Fe2O3 and humus.

 Due to this reason, this part becomes very hard and visible.


There is an innermost layer between A and C stratum whose presence is Not sure.

C stratum

It is the unconsolidated material underlying the solum (A plus B horizon). It may or may not be the same as the parent material from which the solum formed. 

This horizon also considers as outside the zones of major biological activities and is very little affected by solum forming processes

These layers are not part of the solum. A soil that consists only of recently deposited alluvium or recently exposed soft sediment does not have a solum. 

Solum mainly includes, A and B horizons. The solum of a soil is not necessarily confined to the zone of major biological activity. A solum does not have a maximum or a minimum thickness.

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